Negotin


Negotinska Krajina today is geographically mostly identified with Negotin municipality, which covers 1,089 sq km.

Krajina is located between Serbia, Romania and Bulgaria. Plains, known as Negotinska krajina, is located between rivers Danube and Timok up the hill Vidrovac Badnjevo Bratujevac. Above this line is a flat plateau to the mountains and Deli Jovan table, this whole area is naturally separated from the central and western Serbia. Therefore, and due to the relatively low altitude of the city is about 45 meters above sea level.

Geographic coordinates:

latitude: 44 ° 13 '0 - north

longitude 22 ° 31 '60 - east

Distance from other cities
Београд 260 км, Ниш 160 км, Бор 65 км, Зајечар 60 км



History


’’One piece of land between the Timok, Danube, Kljuc and Porec mountains. In Krajina there is about fifty villages, but not all Serbian. There are also Wallachian villages. In Krajina is town Negotin, the old walls in Prahovo (on Danube), the spring Caricina, river Zamna, and small monastery nearly Negotin’’ Thus wrote Vuk Karadzic in 1813.

Traces of Neolitic man that have been found on the banks of the Danube in the villages Prahovo, Dusanovac and Radujevac, testify that this area was inhabited in the Stone Age. Research results of the archeological materials found in Lepenski Vir, tell us that people lived on the banks of the Danube in Djerdap, six thousand years ago. Their culture was very specific and developed. Many civilisations lived here during the past. They progressed, developed and vanished. Many informations about them were lost in time, but Djerdap area was always the bridge between Wallachian valey and Timok valley.
At the time of the great migrations of the people, various tribes were coming from the east, leaving the chaos behind them.
Trachians and Illyrians (Triballis) were the first inhabitants of Danube basin. But, territory of Krajina Negotin was also invaded by Celts, newcomers from Dacia.

Romans had conquered these territories in the first century A.C and during few centuries, with variable war fortune, defended this territory from Goths, Sarmats, Slavs and others.
Byzantine rulers, incapable to deal with the invasions, changedtheir tactics toward Slavs. Justinianan I , had alowed some Slovenian tribes to inhabite some parts of the region from the river Morava to the Black sea. On the teritory of the “Negotinska Krajina” and along the river Timok, the first Slavs were the tribes “NEGOCS and TIMACS“
In the medievel history of today’s Krajna, the battle between Byzantium and Bulgaria was one of the most significant moments in the history of this region. In the beginning of the XIII century this region was under the jurisdiction of the Serbian king Milutin.


History of Negotin - XIX century


Krajina Negotin in First Serbian Revolt

Karadjordje was the leader of the First Serbian Rebellion against the Turks in 1804.

The inhabitants of Krajina didn’t join the rebellion right away. The death of Sultan Pazvan - Oglu who was defeated in the battle at Banja and Serbian – Russian military agreement iin 1806 involved Krajina in the First Serbian rebbelion.
The most glorious moment in the history of Krajina has been written by Hajduk Veljko during his heroic defence of Krajina from Turks ( 1811 -1813). Unfortunatly, Hajduk Veljko was killed in July 1813 and after that the Turks concuered Negotin and the whole Krajina.


Liberation of Negotin and Krajina

After the fall of the Rebellion, eastern parts of Serbia were under the jurisdiction of Turkish authorities until the the Second Serbian Rebellion and liberation ( 1833) of sixs regions (nahije). By the Edict in 1833, Sultan allowed the existance of the six Serbian regions. In the new territorial partition of Serbia, Negotin had significant role. First, it became the Residence town of Captaincy, then at 1834 it became the center of the Danube -Timok military region.
In the XIX century Negotin had aproximately 600 houses and 2.700 residents. In 1866, number of the houses raised up to 984 and residents up to 4.325. In that period many cultural institutions have been established.
In 1839, Negotin had Gymnasium and several elementary schools. In the second half of the XIX century ,Negotin had one of the first schools for girls at that time in Serbia. Many institutions were established at the same time as the similar institutions in Belgrade .

Many institutions and assosiation were established during that period, such as The Singing Assosiation (1853), one year after The First Singing Assosiation from Belgrade.
Until the end of the last decade of the XIX century, development of Negotin was continiual but after that period, Negotin slowed down the tempo of the progress staying in the shadow of other Serbian towns. But inspite that, Negotin had increased the number of its inhabitants at the beginning of the XX century .In 1900, Negotin had 6.342 inhabitants.


History of Negotin - XX century


Negotin in the first half of the twentieth century

After establishing the Balkan alliance (Serbia, Bulgaria, Montenegro and Grece) in 1912 partial coordination of some military aspects of Serbian-Bulgarian military alliance was organized in agriculture school “Bukovo” nearby Negotin. Serbian delegation in these negotiations was led by general-duke Radomir Putnik.

The soldiers from Krajina won the battle against the Turks as a members of the Timok division and second Serbian army. Turkish army was defeated on all fronts.

The winning countries divided the territory of Macedonia but qonsequently after that began The Second Balkan war. The Timok division took part in very successful operations on the front line Sofia-Pirot-Nis. One of the most unexpested victories was taking over the fortified Bulgarian town Belogradcik by “third call “ military trups from Krajina.
After the victory of the Serbian army in Belogradcik , the war was over in favour of Serbia. After the retreat of the Serbian army, Bulgarians occupied Negotin and Krajina. They introduced Bulgarian language as official language in schools, employed their teachers, from schools programs they have removed all contains of the Serbian history and culture. It was attempt of Bulgarian authorities to establish their culture in Krajina. All Serbian citizens who refused to obey Bulgarian rules, were sent to labour camps in Bulgaria.
After the recovery on the Greek islands Vido and Krf , Serbian Army went to the Solon front. In the battles held on this front significant role had the XIII regiment “ Hajduk Veljko “ which was the component of the Second army.
After the break through the Solun front in 1918, XIII regiment couldn’t participate in the liberation of Eastern Serbia. French general Zuinja Gambeta with his troups liberated Negotin on 21.X.1918.



KRAJINA BETWEEN TWO WORLD WARS

With the reorganization of the public administration, in the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, in 1922, Negotin lost the status of distrtict and the town lost the district facilities. Only District Court and some district institutions have been returned to the town in 1930. But, Negotin had lost the importance of administrative, military and political center of the eastern Serbia.
People in Negotin did not agree with this status, but with their efforts, in the years between the two World Wars, they completely changed the picture of Negotin. First powerplant, People of Krajina, did run in 1924, and light Negotin. Pioneer of electrification in Serbia, scientist physicist, astronomer and builder of first powerplants in Serbia was Djordje Stanojevic, who is also from Negotin.

During the period of reorganisation of the state in the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians in 1922, Negotin had lost the status of the district and was left without district institutions. In 1930 the District court and the other district institutions were established again in Negotin. Inspite that, Negotin had lost its significant role as an administratative, military and political center of The Eastern Serbia.
People of Negotin didn't agree with this and with their own efforts in the years between two wars completely changed the picture of Negotin. The first heating plant started to work in 1924.
Pioneer of the electrification in Serbia, scientist, physicsician, astronomist and the constructor of first electric power plant was Dr. Djordje M.Stanojevic who was born in Negotin.
A few years later, the drainage channels for draining Negotin swamp have been constructed. Boarding shool for the students of Teachers school, New hospital and the vine cellar were built from 1930. until 1932.
The traffics connections were improved by river traffic. Ships “ Yugoslavia “ and “ Car Nicola “ were on the line Donji Milanivac – Negotin – Kladovo since 1930. Railroad connected Negotin with Nis and Belgrade and with other parts of Yugoslavia at that time.

Thanks to three high schools (gymnasium, agriculture and teachers) and garrison post of the 9 TH Infantry regiment Negotin was called “ the town of pupils and soldiers”.
On the beginning of The Second World War Krajina had three parts: Negotin, Krajina (with main office in Salas) and Jabukovac( apx. 80.000 residents).
Negotin was liberated from the German occupation on 12.XI.1944. Since then it is the cultural and economical centre of the municipality.



Source: negotin.rs

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